Patanjali Yoga Sutra - Chapter One

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Samadhi Pad:   Chapter 1

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Verse 1

atha yoganusasanam

atha-now; yoganusasana = yoga- yoga and its practice  = anusasanam- explanation


Now I give the explanation of (the discipline of) yoga and its practice. Discipline is the basis of meditation and yoga. The word "Anushasan" also means discipline and regularity absolutely necessary for success in any human endeavour.



     Sri Patanjali began by the term atha which means now or at this time, I will do something.  He took the task of giving the explanation of yoga and its practice, because before this time such an explanation was not laid out in an academic way.  He gave the syllabus for yoga, thus breaking the monopoly of all those teachers who mastered yoga and who taught it to their students bit by bit over the years.


     Whatever Sri Patanjali would say would be standard.  It cannot be changed merely by a difference in philosophy.  Just as a gasoline combustion engine manufactured in Japan will be quite similar to one manufactured in German, so yoga practice will be the same everywhere, because the human body is the same in each case, and the way of changing the subtle form which produced that gross one is also the same.


Paul’s Notation: 

Some commentators have said that the word NOW implies that after some or much preparation, NOW this information is being presented.



Verse 2

yogah cittavrtti nirodhah 

yogah- the skill of yoga; cittavritti = citta mento-emotional energy +vritti-vibrational mode; nirodhah - cessation, restraint, non operation


The skill of yoga is demonstrated by the conscious non-operation of the vibrational modes of the mento-emotional energy.



     Yoga is something personal and practical. It is not a group effort.  Each student of yoga has to achieve the states all by himself or herself.  Thus in a sense, yoga is an isolated and lonely course.   This is the reason for the poor response of the public to the call to take up hard-core yoga austerities.  People like company but yoga requires the company of one’s self only.  One must work with one’s psyche only to be successful in yoga.


     There were many attempts to translate the word citta.  Some say it is the mind, some say it is the energy in the mind.  Some say it is the consciousness.  These terms, though accurate to a degree bring with them a certain vagueness which covers the meaning even more.


     To understand citta we have to consider two aspects, those of thinking and feeling.  Whatever energy is used for thinking is citta, and whatever is used for feeling is citta.  It is citta through which we think and feel.  To understand citta one has to become concerned with psychological locations.  Where does your thinking take place?  When a thought arises in which energy is illustrated in the mind?  When you have an emotional response to something real or imaginary, in which part of your psyche does that take place?  What sort of energy is used to develop and transmit emotion?  Whatever correct answer one would give to any of these questions would identify the citta energy.  Chitta is the mento-emotional energy in which our thoughts are formed and are disintegrated. It is the energy in which our feelings are formed and in which the same feelings subside to nothingness.


      By convention it is discovered that the vibrational energy of the mind always keeps moving in one way or the other.  Thus some spiritual masters conclude that it would be impossible to comply with this stipulation of Patanjali for the non-operation of the mento-emotional force in the psyche.  They have dismissed Patanjali as being an impractical theorist.  The solution they say is to engage the mind in spiritual topics, never giving it the chance to dwell on ordinary subjects which are apart from the trancendence.  However, human convention is not everything.  When a yogin gets experience beyond the dimension of this world, he can afford to heed Patanjali, and strive for the non-operation of the mental-emotional force in this dimension of consciousness.  Somehow by his own endeavor and by divine grace, a yogin’s mento-emotional force becomes stilled.  It stalls for a time and turns into a divine vision which perceives the chit akasha, the sky of consciousness.  The world known otherwise as akshardam, brahma and vaikuntha.  When this happens , the yogi understands what Sri Patanjali explained in this verse 2 of his sutras.


     Srila Yogeshwaranana Yogiraja indicated that Sri Patanjali should not have suggested that it was possible to completely quiet the mento-emotional force, for indeed, it is not possible to stop it from vibrating altogether, but rather one may quiet it in one dimension while it continues to operate in another.  It cannot be quieted in all of it’s phases because even after the dissolution of the universe, the prana, or subtle mundane energy keeps shifting quietly for many millions of years.  This slight movement, might in reference , be considered to be static but does have a vibrational consistency.  


Paul’s Notation:

I cannot help but wonder, when reading these verses and commentary whether or not the meanings need to translate into such technical terms and I don’t mean this in a critical way of either Sri Patanjali or Sri Madhvachara.  Recently I read a “translation “ of this same verse by Mr. Alister Shearer, who gave these words:  Yoga is settling the mind in silence”  

I thought this interesting in the simplicity of the words as well as the suggestions that perhaps words like settling and silence though simple sounding could when tried to

Illustrate with words become very complicated.  And as we are seeing here, the complicated and agitated mind prevent Yoga from happening to the practitioner.

The mind must be made quiet and anyone who has endeavored to meditate for any length of time soon discovers that any haphazard  effort to quiet the mind brings on more turbulence in the mind…and perhaps technically speaking the word “settling” is

Not literally accurate, but for practical purposes, settling is what happens when the mind does in fact become quiet.



Verse 3

tada drastuh svarupe avasthanam 

tada- then; drastuh- the perceiver; svarupe- in his own form; avasthanam- is situated


Then the perceiver is situated in his own form.



     When the mento-emotional energy has reached the state of quiescence, the perceiver within that energy, experiences himself by himself, alone without those influences. This is the state of swarupa, or his own form.


     So long as that mento-emotional energy vibrates actively, the perceiver is not allowed to reflect on himself.  He is instead, drawn into concerns other than myself.  Thus he responds carelessly since his sense of identity was diverted to something else.. Sri Patanjali gave this statement about the situation in the spiritual self, swarupe, to give encouragement and to generate interest in self realization.  After all, if one does not realize one’s essential self, one must identify with objects or energies which are not the self.


Paul’s Notation:

The only question I would raise here is  this,  If the perceiver rests in his own form, then why is right perception regarded as a vritti?.  In going through this text, I am struggling with the term perception, where many translators give the term cognition, or understanding.  More about this later.


Verse  4

vrtti sarupyam itaratra 

vritti- the mento-emotional energy; sarupayam- with the same format, conformity; itaratra - at other times


At other times, there is conformity with the mento-emotional energy.



     The perceiver, even though he is different to the mento-emotional energy, is not allowed to show autonomy or independence when that energy is active in its concern for things in this dimension.  The perceiver is forced as it were, to conform to the dictates of that mento-emotional force.  He is forced to use the same format as the energy irrespective of a deliberate or non-deliberate interest into this dimension and its corresponding higher or lower locales.  The perceiver is forced to identify with that ideation energy.  It is only when its vibrations cease of their own accord or are suppressed by him or by another force, that he may realize the self.


Paul’s Notation: 

This is such an amazing verse.  AT ALL OTHER TIMES, (when not situated in his real form) a man conforms automatically with something he is not!  So from this perspective most people go through life totally immersed in something they are not, totally identified with something they are not.  One would think, having realized this,

That this in itself would be a tremendous motivating force and impetus to simply find out who I really am, or what we really are! Pantanjali is saying that we live out lives.

Identified with the wrong things and when we actually come to stop this identification, who we really are is simply there.  The sheer simplicity of this may sound easy, but is it really as easy as it sounds. Let’s read on.



Verse 5

vrttayah pancatayyah klista aklistah 

vrttayah- the vibrations in mento-emotional energy; pancatayyah  - fivefold; klistaklistah= klista- agonizing + aklistah- non-troublesome


The vibrations in the mento-emotional energy are five-fold being agonizing or none- troublesome.



     Sri Patanjali has not given a middle designation or a mixed status for the mento-emotional vibrations.  He simply stated that there were five types of these vibrations; some causing agony and some which are not troublesome.  This is to be realized in mystic yoga practice so that the yogi becomes expert at recognizing the various moods of his mind and emotions.  An ignorance of the operations of the mental and emotional energy, will cause the self to trail behind the mental and emotional moods.  This will invariably lead to haphazard rebirths and responsibility for wreckless acts.   Ignorance of one’s psychology and of how it operates, is costly to the living entity.


      As stated in the second verse of these sutras, the skill of yoga is demonstrated by non-vibrational of the mento-emotional energies. When the Yogi  ceases the vibrations, the energy converts into being a supernatural vision with which he sees into the chit-akash, the sky of consciousness, the spiritual environment.  The yogin was given the citta energy for that purpose but due to his ineptness he was not able to use it appropriately.  Instead it served him for imagining and analyzing mundane energy.  Sri Patanjali will tell us something more about the five vibrationial modes of the mental and emotional energy.


Paul’s Notation:

This means that some of the vrittis go unnoticed and some get our attention in the form of pain.  If one of them were  agonizing, I suppose the need for self liberation or liberation would not arise.



Verse 6

pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smrtayah 

pramana - correct perception; viparyaya - incorrect perception; vikalpa – imagination; nidra – sleep; smrtayah- memory


They are correct perception, incorrect perception, imagination, sleep and memory.



     This means that we have to recognize five kinds of vibrational activities of the mento-emotional energy.  According to Sri Patanjali whatever occurs in the mental and emotional energy must be one of a combination of the five vibrations.  A yogin should know these thoroughly.  If one does not understand the workings of his mind and feelings, he cannot become liberated.  One cannot become liberated from an ignorance of these.


     We are endowed with the mento-emotional energy and it is restricted to those five kinds of vibrations which produce either correct perception , false perception, imagination, sleep and memory.  All these psychological functions occur in the citta energy.  That is  its capability when focused into this dimension.  The problem with this is that the living entity cannot always be in a position to know what is taking place within his own mind and emotions.  In most persons, the operations occur  faster than the entity is able to perceive.  Thus the entity sees the conclusions or feels such conclusion and does not understand what is taking place until after it has occurred or until after he or she has reacted beneficially or unbeneficially to them. 

     Let us take for example the operation of sleep. One may fall asleep and not know it until after the sleep mode has terminated.  A man for instance, who drives a car in a tired state, would realize  that he fell asleep at the wheel after his car had crashed into a tree and he awoke in a badly damaged body in a hospital.  The operations are impulsively performed in the mind and emotions.  This impulsiveness is a handicap for the living entity.  


Now will discuss these five operations one by one.


Correct Perception:

     The most interesting feature of  this operation is our dependence upon it.  The question arises as to why we need a psychological tool for correct perception.  Why is it that we could not perceive reality without having to use the mento-emotional energy?  The question is this:  If as this sutra indicates , we are dependent on the correct perception vibrational mode of the mind, then how can we restrict the energy so that it  does not shift into the mode which gives us incorrect perception or unrealistic imagination?  As we consider these sutras, we will see if Sri Patanjali dealt with these questions.  Otherwise each yogi will have to get answers from another authority and from his own valid research.


     The only thing we know for certain is this: the mento-emotional energy is capable of five kinds of operations. Furthermore, normally we do not control this, but rather this happens reflexively.  What yoga process gives us the ability to control this either absolutely or partially?


Incorrect perception:

     The problem with false perception is that within the energy itself, there is a tendency not to recognize the vibrations which cause false perception, but rather to try to correct such perception by various haphazard applications.  Therefore we have to train the psychology in a different way, in a totally new way, so that it becomes concerned only with recognizing the vibrational state from which false perceptions are derived.  This means that we have to advance to higher yoga in dharana linkage of the mind to higher concentration forces.


     It is not false perceptions that are the problem but rather the vibrations in the energy which cause the wrong views in the first place.  We have to strive to recognize these vibrations and to stop them, so that the mind may function only with the vibrations which produce correct or true perceptions.  This will take repeated practice, because the vibrations which produce false perceptions are naturally occurring.  It is not a matter of suppressing these undesirable vibrations, even though a yogi will have to suppress them from time to time.  It is rather a feat for the yogi to cause the mind and feelings not to vibrate in that way.  This would require a mastership of pranayama and a strong development of vigilance and acute dispassion.  These aspects will be discussed in detail elsewhere in this commentary.  It is mentioned by Sri Patanjali.



     Two person in particular requested that I write this translation and commentary of Sri Patanjali Muni’s Yoga Sutra.  Those persons are Srila Yogeshwaranand Yogiraja who has departed from his physical body and Sir Paul Castagna, who to this date (Jan. 2003) still uses a physical form.  Srila Yogeshwarananda, thought that I was duty bound to write such a translation and commentary and that it would benefit me.  Sri Sir Paul Castagna thought that I would further break open the meaning of the sutras. In any case I now thank these two individuals for their pushing and tugging.


     Sri Patanjali Maharshi is not an ordinary person.  And though I was reluctant to translate and comment on this classic work on  Yoga and its practice, still I benefited from this task which my teacher Srila Yogeshwarananda and my colleage Sri Paul Castagna motivated me to begin and complete.




     The curbing of the imagination faculty of the mento-emotional energy is the key to a successful dharana practice.  This dharana is the sixth stage of yoga, that of linking the attention to a higher concentration force.  The process of willful non-operation  of the vibrational capacity of the mento-emotional energy has to do with curbing the impulsive nature of the imagination faculty of the buddhi organ in the head of the subtle body.  Hence the checking of the impulsive operation of this faculty is the key to mastery of the dharana practice.


     Sri Krishna told Arjuna that for those living entities who are embodied, this technique is hard to attain:  

kleso'dhikatarah tesam avyaktasaktacetasam

avyakta hi gatih duhkham dehavadbhih avapyate 

The mental exertion of those whose minds are attached to the invisible existence is greater. The goal of reaching that invisible reality is attained with difficulty by the human beings. (Gita 12.5)


     For a person who is used to gross and subtle mundane objects and who is sensually inclined to enjoying such objects, a preliminary procedure is given by the yogi masters.  This is the process of focusing on sanctified  objects in this world.  After some time when the student develops detachment from this world, he is introduced to the method of directly shifting his attention from this world to the chit  akash, the sky of consciousness.            This begins with the naad sound kriya which was given to Uddhava in the eleventh canto of Srimad Bhagavatam:   

       hrdy avicchinnam omkaram

ghanta-nadam bisorna-vat

pranenodirya tatratha

punah samvesayet svaram

In the heart chakra, the Om sound which is like the continuous peal of a bell,resonates continually,like a fibre in a lotus stalk. Raising it by using the vitalizing energy, one should blend that sound with the musical tones.(Srimad Bhagavatam 11.14.34)


     When the imagination faculty is fully curbed, it develops into the eye of consciousness, which is called Jnana chaksus or Jnana dipah, when this eye opens one sees into the chit akash, the sky of consciousness.  When one is steady in using this eye, one’s spiritual life is sealed.  That is an objective of yoga practice.  We will hear more from Sri Patanjali of how to attain this.


     The vibration of sleep cannot be eliminated altogether but its negative aspects may be curtailed by a yogin through mastery of pranayama and expertise in the dharana linkage of the attention to hight concentration forces.  According to Srila Yogeshwarananda, sleep is a permanent requirement for the subtle and causal forms.  These bodies require sleep for rejuvenation.  Even the cosmic god, the Hiranyagarbha personality , has to sleep from time to time, thus shutting down his energies which flow into this material world.


      However, a yogin should curtail the negative aspects of sleep by learning how to keep his subtle body fully charged with fresh prana and with energies which come in from higher dimensions.



     The vibration of memory is an ever-active and  functions automatically on the basis of prompting which come to it from the mento-emotional chamber.  Memory circuits are triggered by impressions which arise in the imagination, as well as from the other three vibrational powers of true perception, false perception and sleep.  A yogin has to learn how to shut off the automatic switch which causes the memory to be activated.  If he fails to do this, he will be unable to reach the stage of samadi which is the highest level of yoga practice.



Verse 7

pratyaksa anumana agamah pramanani 

pratyaksanumanagamah= pratyaksa- direct but correct perception + anumana- correct analysis + agamah- correct reference; pramanani- true perception, correct perception


Correct perception may be acquired directly, by correct analysis or by correct reference.



     Even though this is obvious, Sri Patanjali alerts us in this verse, that we have to learn how to recognize when our intellect functions in this mode of operation.  Everyone understands that when false information is used there will be incorrect conclusions.  Analysis, when applied to false information, results in  false conclusion, which leads to incorrect insight.  It is the same with reference.  A reference may be the wrong one, or it may be inaccurate, hence the use of it will lead to false conclusions.  Direct perception may be incorrect.  Pratyaksa is a combination of prati and akshah, but aksha means perception.  When that perception is correct, it is prati-aksha, pratyaksa.   For true perception a yogin must have an accurate intellect and also have accurate information from outside his intellect.  It is not just reliant on his intellect.  It is reliant on getting accurate information outside the intellect.  However, if the yogin’s intellect is sufficiently surcharged with higher concentration forces, he will recognize the incorrect and unreliable information.  He will not use such information to produce wrong conclusions.  A yogi must be in the right position to get the right information.  This is achieved by mystic maneuvers.  This all means that there is more for accurate perception; more is required besides the purity of the psyche of the yogi.  He has to get himself into a position from which he can use his accurate buddhi organ to perceive correctly.  


     An astronomer may have an accurate telescope but still he cannot take an accurate reading on a very cloudy night unless he can go beyond the cloud formations.  He has to put himself in the proper positions to use the accurate instrument.  Correct perception may be acquired directly only if the yogin has a reality-perceiving intellect and is in the proper position to use it.


     Correct perception can be acquired directly by insight developed by correct analysis after getting some facts but this is solidified only  after the yogin can take that analysis to the point of getting the direct sight of it.  Furthermore, by correct reference, a yogin may form certain correct conclusions but that is not sufficient because it is not direct sensual observation.  Therefore it is incomplete.  He will have to develop himself further to reach the stage of true direct sensual perception of the supernatural and spiritual realities.


     Finally a yogin has to develop himself in such a way as to sort out the various true and erroneous perceptions of his intellect.  Then he may suppress and gradually eliminate the faulty parts and the motivations which support defective perception.



Verse 8

viparyayah mithyajnanam atadrupa pratistham  viparyaah - incorrect perception; mithyajnanam= mithya-false + jnanam- information; atadrupa = atad - not this = rupa- form; pratistham - positioned, based


Incorrect perception is based on false information and on perception of what is not the true form.



     The vibrational  mode which produces a firm conviction about something that is incorrect is caused by the perception of false information and on perceiving what is not the true form (atadrupa).


     The willingness of the buddhi organ in accepting the information given to it by the senses is the root of this problem.  The reliance of the buddhi on the sensual energies must be broken by the yogin.  This can be achieved by perfecting the pratyahar 5th stage of yoga practice, where the sensual energies are withdrawn from their interest into the subtle and gross mundane world.  The strength of the senses which is their ability to keep the buddhi organ under subjugation is based on the extrovert tendencies of the organ.  Thus if that tendency is squelched, the senses lose their authority over the organ and it becomes independent of them.  This is mastered by pratyahar practice.


     The perception of the sensual energies is operated with the energy of fuel of the prana which is subtle air.  When the yogi practices pranayama and is able to take in a higher grade of prana, his senses become purified and they no longer make so many erroneous judgments which they force the buddhi to accept.   Thus the yogi becomes freed from incorrect perceptions.


Paul’s Notation: 

I struggled with this word perception where many translators give the word understanding or cognition.  In this kind of text as in much of the whole hindu approach, it is very easy to get so totally caught up in words, and mistake the words

For the actual things.  I have observed this in my own psyche self study. I think it’s a key way of seeing what an actual division exists in reality between the Perceiver and the Perceived…and in that interval is what Patanjali called the Buddhi and it’s operations.

Admittedly and regrettably I do not speak Sanskrit and my personal problem with this word has more to do with the conditioning or habit pattern my own buddhi formed over the 20 some years of reading this text and memorizing verses using the word understanding…perhaps other readers will encounter this as they proceed through the text.  Not to worry.  One must get in touch with what those words represent and at a certain point let go of the stronghold the buddhi has on these words and their actual or unread meanings..  the word I would use is comprehension…



Verse 9

sabdajnana anupati vastusunyah vikalpah 

sabdajnana – written or spoken information; anupati- followed by; vastusunyah- devoid of reality, without reality; vikalpah- imagination  


Verbal or written information which is followed by concepts which are devoid of reality, is imagination.



     It is important to understand that the same mento-emotional energy which can mislead the living entity or cause him to come to the wrong conclusion, is the very same psychic organ which he must use to see into the super-physical world.  Even though Sri Patanjali listed only five modes of operation for this tool, still, when it is shifted off from this world it can be used for super-physical perceptions.  Therefore it can be used in the mode of correct perceptions for spiritual insights.


     When it is used as motivated by false verbal or written information, it develops ideas, conceptions and the like, which cause an imagination which has no basis in reality.  But since the living entity is dependent on it, he accepts its picturizations, sounds and impressions as if such notions were a reality.  Thus he makes mistakes.  He has to learn to recognize when his buddhi organ has adopted a submissive acceptance of incorrect information.


Paul’s Notation:

Is this a clue here?  Does this imply that whatever OTHER activity of the “perceiver” that is not sleep . imagination, right perception, wrong perception of memory” is what Sri Patanjali is calling super physical perception?  Does this mean when the Perceiver looks without judgment, without opinion, without superimposing his memory functions on what he is observing, THEN he is seeing in what is being called super-physical and is no long being led as it were by the vritties.



Verse 10

abhava pratyaya alambana vrttih nidra 

abhava- absence of awareness; pratyaya- conviction or belief as mental content; alambana- support, prop, means of conversion; vrittih-  vibrational mode; nidra - sleep


Sleep is the vibrationial mode which is supported by the absence of objective awareness.



      There are various types of sleep but the true sleep is when the mind has no content, such that one feels as if one was barely existing during the sleep.  This is realized not during that state but after it.  During such sleep the living entity becomes disconnect from his buddhi organ.  But when he is connected to it again, he realizes that he was barely connect to his discrimination and sense of objectivity.


     We may consider that the vritties or vibrational modes of the mental and emotional energy are fivefold in normal consciousness.  It is like a car which has a set of four gears, with a mental functioning.  The reverse function is comparable to the operational mode of memory.  Memory has to do with recalling something from the past.  The mental function is comparable to deep sleep when the vehicle cannot move at all.  The other modes or gears are all forward vibrations, which Sri Patanjali gave as correct perception, false perception and imagination.


Verse 11

anubhuta visaya asampramosah smrtih

anubhuta- the experience; visaya- the object; asampramosah-  retention; smrtih-  memory


Memory is the retained impression of experienced objects.



     Memory has to do with the past and therefore it might be compared to the reverse gear in an automobile.  In reverse, the driver travels on the path traversed before.  Memory must be curbed by a yogin, because otherwise he would never be free from the mental impressions which have formed in his conscious and subconscious mind.  These impressions vent themselves into the conscious mind and are appropriated by the buddhi intellect organ for usages in further imaginations, which lead to actions of interference in the material world.  This interference brings on liabilities for which the yogin is held responsible. If one does not quell, or quiet off completely, the memory and disconnect from the memory, he cannot become liberated.  Thus a yogin has to get a method of removing this function in the mento-emotional energy.


Paul’s Notation:

     In ordinary waking consciousness the ordinary human being does not have a sense, or make the distinction between what Sri Pantanjali is calling the Buddhi organ and himself.  Later on he will tell us that it is due to this short sightedness, lack of skill, or ignorance that we do not experience our actual self, but rather mere projections and superimpositions.  This Buddhi organ is part of a survival mechanism gone amuck.  How easy it is to recall an event, and then find yourself immersed in that event, just as in a dream or in doing mental gymnastics, problem solving and so on. It is so easy to become lost in these things, and eventually we must ask ourselves “Where ought we to be stationed?”  After millions of years of being tossed around by the senses and survival mechanism, when do we come to make a sincere inquiry as to who and where we are in all of this, for if we in our normal state feel ourselves merged with these equipment when we un merge where then do we find ourselves?   



Verse 12

abhyasa vairagyabhyam tannirodhah

abhysa- effective yoga practice; vairagyabhyam = non – interest, a total lack of concern, non- interference; tan= tat- that; nirodhah- cessation, restraint, non-operation


That non-operation of the vibrational  modes is achieved by effective practice in not having an interest  n the very same operations.



     Sri Patanjali Mahamuni Yogiraja gave me a hint regarding this verse.  By telepathy he sent this clarification.  “Those who are advanced should continue practicing with firm faith that their connection with the lower operational modes of the mental and emotional energies decreases daily.  They need not read any more of these sutras which I wrote down so long ago.  


     “However those who are not so advanced should read further and take hints according to their particular progressions.  In this verse twelve, these sutras are concluded, but dull students need to hear more from the teacher.  They should listen to more of the verses.  This book ends in this verse twelve  for those who are advanced, but  others should read on for more hints on practice.”


     To wipe out one’s connection with the vrittis or the operational modes of the mental and emotional energies, we need to be detached from the very same operations or modes.  That is all we need to do.  However for those of use who are not so advanced we need to hear more.  Basically speaking we have to enter into the neutral mode and from there into higher concentration energies which cause sensual perception into the chitakash, the sky of consciousness.


     Vairagya has come to be translated as detachment or non attachment.  However it is more than that .  It is a total lack of interest and an attitude of non-interference in cultural activities.  One gets hints about this as one progresses in yoga.  One is shown the way by other great yogins like Sri Patanjali.



Verse 13

tatra sthitau yatnah abhyasah

tatra – there, in that case; sthitau – regarding steadiness or persistence; yatnah - endeavor; abhyasah – practice


In that case, practice is the persistent endeavor (to cultivate that lack of interest).



     The related practice is hereby defined.  It must be persistent and requires endeavor   (yatnah).  One has to cultivate that lack of interest because by nature, the mind and emotions are extroverted and have self-conceited mentality.  The self-conceited mentality is used to enjoy privately in the psychology in a perverted and harmful way.  All this must be curbed effectively.



Verse 14

sa tu dirghakala nairantarya satkara asevitah drdhabhumih

sa =sah- that; tu- but; dirgha – long; kala- time; nairantarya- uninterrupted continuous; satkara—revernce, care attention; asevitah- sustained practice, aggressive interest; drdha- firm; bhumih- ground, foundation, basis


But that is attained on the firm basis of a continuous reverential sustained practice which is executed for a long time.



     What was acquired over millions and millions of births will take some time for its removal from the psyche.   It will not go away over  night.  Thus this yoga course is not the same as the easy paths of salvation.



Verse 15

drsta anusravika visaya vitrsnasya vasikarasamjna vairagyam 

drsta- what is seen or perceived directly; anusravika- what is conjectured on the basis of scripture or valid testimony; visya- an attractive object; vitrsnasya - of one who does not crave; vasikara – through control;

samjna – consciousness, demeanor, mind-set; vairagyam- non interest  


The non interest in the operations of the mento-emotional energy is achieved by one who has perfect mastery in consciousness and who does not crave for what is perceived or what is heard of in the mundane existence.



     To silence the mento-emotional energy one has to stop craving the subtle and gross existence.  Any craving triggers a renewed interest in this world and its activities, that activates the five vibrational operations, which were listed before as correct perception, incorrect perception, imagination, memory and sleep.



Verse 16

tatparam purusakhyateh gunavaitrsnyam

tat – that; param – highest  (non – interest ); purusa -  of the spiritual person; khyateh –of a thorough awareness; guna – features of material nature; vaitrsnyam – freedom from desire


That highest non-interest occurs when there is freedom from desire for the features of material nature and thorough awareness of the spiritual person.



     This does not come about easily.  This is why Sri Patanjali alerted the student yogis that it will take a long time (dirgha kala) for them to attain success.  This cultivation of non-interest is said to be part of raja yoga, but that does not mean that one can get it by avoiding asana and pranayama practice.


     Purusha, the spirual personality and prakriti, the gross and subtle material nature, display a liking for one  another.  It is not an easy task for anyone to nullify this affinity.  A complete transformation in the psychology would be required for one to develop the full non-interest in the subtle or gross mundane energy.



Verse 17

vitarka vicara ananda asmitarupa anugamat samprajnatah

vitarka – analysis; vicara  deliberation, reflection; ananda – introspective happiness; asmitarupa – I- ness self consciousness; anugamat -  by accompaniment, occurring with; samprajnatah -  the observational linkage of the attention to a higher concentration force


The observational linkage of the attention to a higher concentration force occurs with analysis, reflection, introspective happiness or focus on self consciousness.



      Suddenly and without warning, Sri Patanjali jumped from the cultivation of non-interest in the mundane world to the observational linkage of the attention to higher concentration force.  If a yogin is successful at stopping the ordinary functions of his mento-emotional energies, he will enter a neutral stage from which his attention will be linked to or fused to higher concentration  forces in the sky of consciousness , the chit akasha.


     In the beginning the yogi will be  affected by four other forces from this side of existence.  These are the analytical power of the intellect, the reflective mood of it, the introspective happiness which is felt during pratyahar sensual withdrawal practice and the I-ness or self consciousness which has directed the attention to be linked to the higher concentration force.   


     Some other commentators categorized samprajnata as a type of samadhi.  In other words it has come down in the yogic disciplic  succession that samprajnatah is a type of samadi or a lower stage of the eighth and final level of yoga practice.   However, this writer wants to inform readers that samprajnata is part of dharana practice which is the sixth stage of yoga.  In that stage the linkage is deliberate and is done by the yogi by the mystic force applied .  In the next stage, that of dhyana, the yogi is able to realize his sense of identity and his forceful  application.  He finds that his will power is drawn into the higher concentration force of it’s own accord.  In the eighth stage, that of samadhi, his will is not only effortlessly drawn but it is continually pulled like that for a long time, for over half hour or so.


    In the stage of samdhi, he loses himself more and more, because he does not have to exert  his will or deliberation.  Thus he becomes relaxed.  His mystic power loses tension and application because it is effortlessly pulled into and fused to the higher concentration force.


     In the samprajnata observational linkage, the yogin sometimes finds that he must analyze what he is linked to.  This is preliminary.  All yogis go through these stages one by one as they progress and one does not move from lower to a higher stage until one has integrated the lower progression.   At first when the deliberate linkage occurs, there is an analysis of what one is linked to, as to what level it is on and as to its value, as to what it will evolve into and as to the extent of transcendence.


     After this one reflects on it, for the purpose of integrating it fully for the sake of being able to explain it to others at a later date.  Many of the writings of this writer were made on the basis of due reflection in this stage.  It is for the integration of the writer himself and use later on in teaching  and explaining.  After one advanced beyond this, one reaches a stage of introspective happiness.  This is due to full pratyahar when one loses interest in others and totally pulls in all  sensual  energies and is able to direct oneself purely without looking back for others.


      When this stage is completed, one reaches a stage of self awareness in feeling the limits of one’s spiritual radiation.  At this stage one links up with the cosmic buddhi and the cosmic sense of identity which are bright lights on the super physical planes of existence. This causes an enrichment of one’s personality and a surcharging of one’s spirituality.  If one is not careful at this stage, one may attract many disciples, thus bring one’s spiritual practice to an end.


      Student yogins must remember that samprajnata absorption is observational.  That is its flaw. However it is part of the course of development.  One must perform it and do so carefully so that one can reach a higher stage.  On any stairway, some steps might be slippery, some might be rough, some might have partial treaders, but regardless on has to use all of them if one is to go higher.  Thus one should not feel that he can bypass the samprajnata stage of absorption.  If one completes it properly one will progress upward without having to come down again.



Verse 18

viramapratyaya abhyasapurvah samskarasesah anyah

virama – losing track of, dropping; prayaya – objective awareness, opinions and motives of mind content; abhyasa – practice; purvah- previous, before; samskarasesah + samskara – impression in the mento-emotional energy =sesah – what is remaining; anyah – other


The other state is the compete departure from the level where the remaining impressions lie in the mento-emotional energy.



     The previous practice of losing track of one’s opinions and motives results in the other state which is awareness of remaining impressions left in the mento-emotional energy. 


     Most commentators agree that this is the stage of asamprajnata samadhi or a state of fusion to a higher plane without maintaining any opinions or motivations.


     Provided that one has had a previous practice of repeatedly losing track of one’s opinions and motivations, one can attain this other state in which there is awareness of the remaining impressions in their seed form as they exist in the mind compartment and in the emotions.  The yogi must repeatedly practice to attain this,  as Sri Patanjali told us of the long practice (dirgha kala) required.  In this state there is no foothold on any form or forms, and therefore the yogi has to be very determined, patient and persistent.



Verse 19

bhavapratyayah videha prakrtilayanam

bhava – inherent nature, psychology; pratyayah –mental content, objective awareness; videha- bodiless persons; prakritilayanam – of those who are diffused into subtle material nature


Of those who are diffused into subtle material nature and those who existing in a bodiless state, their psychology has that content.



     This is another jolt put to us by Sri Patanjali, as he explained why one yogi gets a certain advancement which is different from another and why without any current practice, some persons attain the benefits of yoga.  In this case, those who are diffused into the subtle material nature without any effort on their part, without endeavor, are able to do so because of their inherent nature.  A question remains as to whether this in the inherent nature of the spirit or of the psyche which is allied to it.


     Sri Patanjali answered that question by throwing at us the word pratyaya, which means their mental content, the psychological make-up.  However, even though it is not their spirits, still they have to adhere to that nature.


     Certain other individuals attain the bodiless state and remain in material nature.  They sometimes take birth but are unable to remain tied down to a material body due to their inherent tendency to be bodiless. 


     Bengali Baba, in his commentary on these sutras stated that the Videhas, the bodiless ones, are the persons who after performing virtuous actions such as Agnihotra ceremonies of the Vedas, attain the state of freedom, which is similar to absoluteness.  He referred to Mandukopanisad, Chapter 2 Part 1.  He wrote that they are not to return to human life but they will become presiding officers in future creations.  He cited King Suratha who will be the eighth Manu after the reign of the current Manu who is Vaivasvata.


     Such persons attain a permanent status as small-time gods of these worlds.  They have no need at all to take a gross body.  They either use a subtle body or no type of material body at all, but their energy affects this creation.



Verse 20

sraddha virya smrti samadhiprajna purvakah itaresam

sraddha – confidence; virya –vigor, stamina; smrti – introspective memory; samadhi – continuous effortless linkage of the attention to a higher concentration force; prajna – profound insight; purvakah- previously practiced; itaresam – for others


For others, confidence, stamina, introspective memory, the continuous effortless linkage of the attention to a higher concentration force, and profound insight, all being previously mastered, serves as the cause.



     These are the requirements for those who want full success in attaining what Sri Patanjali described in the second sutra.  

yogah cittavrtti nirodhah 

The skill of yoga is demonstrated by the conscious non-operation of the vibrational modes of the mento-emotional energy. (Yoga Sutra 1:2)


     One must have confidence in the practice of yoga and be satisfied with it to such an extent that one becomes attached to it above everything else and will do it to completion.  If one does not have such confidence one will be stalled at the lower stages, one will give up the practice and take a position here or there in the material world, or one might become detached from gross existence but remain attached to certain subtle mundane life.


     One must have stamina which arises with sufficient vigor to spur one to practice.  There are many energies which contravene, or undermine yoga practice.  If one does not have the stamina, one will be influenced by a negative force and will give up the practice.


     One must practice samadhis repeatedly.  Samadhi is the continuous effortless linkage of the attention to any of the higher concentration forces, which a yogi experiences .  He must practice repeatedly.


     The yogin must have profound insight gained through development of the buddhi intellect organ which sees beyond the material world into the super physical planes and beyond.


     Sri Patanjali though acknowledging those person who are natural mystics, who can tune into the subtle material nature or who can exist in the material world in bodiless states, without having to do any yoga practice wrote these sutras expressly for those yogis who are endeavoring with such stamina that they will adhere to yoga, life after life until they reach the culmination.


      There are many people who without any record of yoga practice in their current or perhaps even in their past lives, who are able to switch themselves to psychic or supernatural levels.  But these persons rely on their inherent nature either to be accustomed to being bodiless, or to being diffused into particular subtle phases of material nature (prakrtilaya).



Verse 21

tivrasamveganam asannah   

tivra – very intense; samveganam – regarding those who practice forcibly; asannah -  whatever is very near, what will occur soon 


For those who practice forcefully in a very intense way, the skill of yoga will be achieved very soon.



     Even though Sri Patanjali stated that yoga is attained after a long time, he qualified that statemnt by saying that it is achieved shortly by those who have intense speedy practice.  In fact one cannot conclude yoga practice in any life without intensity and persistence.  It is impossible otherwise.


Paul’s Notation:

This is a very amazing commentary, “one cannot conclude yoga practice in any life without intensity and persistence.”

In other words, at some point the serious yogin MUST intensify his practice to the level that is being discussed here. Whatever that level is, and whatever intensity really means.  Let us read on to see if we are given any more clues as to the meanings.






Verse 22

mrdu madhya adhimatratvat tatah api visesah

mrdu – slight; madhya – mediocre; adhimatratvat - from intense; tatah -  then; api = even; visesah - drating


Then there is even more ratings, according to intense , mediocre, or slight practice.



     Yoga practice yields results according to the intensity of correct practice.  One person might practice intensely with the wrong methods. His result will be the realization of the incorrect practice.  Another person might practice very little with the correct method but he too might not get the results because his practice does not have much forcefulness.


     Sri Patanjali Maharshi gave four rates.  Very intense (tivra-samvega), intense (adhimatratva), mediocre (madhya), and slight (mrdu).



Verse 23

isvara pranidhanat va

isvara - The Supreme Lord; pranidhanat - derived from profound religious meditation; va - or


Or by the method of profound religious meditation upon the Supreme Lord.



     Sri Patanjali in an abrupt statement gave an alternative method (va -or),  which is the profound religious meditation upon the Supreme Lord.  Readers who want to inquire further into the meaning and application of this verse may check on the root words in Sanskrit to find out what that word pranidhana means.  One should first check the root word  dha, which meant to put, to lay upon, to fix upon, to hold, to contain, to seize.  Then check nidhana, which means putting down, depositing, or a place where anything is placed.  Then check pranidhana.


     This indicates very profound and a deep laying of the mind upon the Supreme Lord.  This is very deep meditation.  If one can achieve that without doing yoga practice, one would be demonstrating that culmination of yoga , or one would have the mastery of yoga, even without practice.



Verse 24

klesa karma vipaka asayaih aparamrstah purusavisesah isvarah 

klesa – affliction, troubles; karma- action; vipaka- developments; asayaih – by subcounscious motivations; aparamrstah – unaffected; purusa – person; visesa – special; isvarah-  Supreme Lord


The Supreme Lord is that special person who is not affected by troubles, actions, developmens or by subconscious  motivations.




     Less there be no argument about it, Sri Patanjali clarified what he meant by the Supreme Lord, the Ishvara, as the person who is ever free from all afflictions, actions and developments in the material world and from subconscious motivations.  Such a person wherever he may be found, would cause the devotee to enter into the higher consciousness for being free from the normal operations of the mento-emotional energy provided the devotee could do as instructed in the previous verse:

isvara pranidhanat va “Or by the method of profound religious meditation upon the Supreme Lord.” (Yoga Sutra 1:23)



Verse 25

tatra niratisayam sarvajnabijam

tatra – there, in Him; niratisayam – unsurpassed; sarvajna - all knowing; bijam – origin


There, in Him, is found the unsurpassed origin of all knowledge.



     This is a further description of the Supreme Lord.  Sri Patanjali has carefully not named this Lord as Krishna or Shiva or Brahma, or anyone else.   He gave that Lord’s special characteristics through which He may be identified.


Paul’s Notation:  

Yes this is interesting and gives further clues that what Sri Pantajali does not say can sometimes be as important as what is stated on the lines.  What if each Yogin were to sit down honestly with himself and try to identify WHO this person would be in the context of one’s own life and try to identify That Person who he views as having the origin of all knowledge.  On a purely psychological level this could be a worthwhile endeavor in that one would discover WHO that person is and perhaps how he came to have this regard, and from there perhaps gain further understandings as to the psychological authority in ones life.  But Sri Patanjali  MAY be more specific than this.  He MAY be talking about a God who he himself experiences different from the God that you and I might encounter.



Verse 26

sa esah purvesam api guruh kalena anavacchedat

sa =sah – He; esah – this particular person; purvesam – of those before, the ancient teachers; api – even; guruh – the spiritual teacher; kalena- by time; anavacchedat - unconditioned


He,  this particular person, being unconditioned by time is the guru even of the ancient teachers, the authorities from before.




     In case there is doubt about this Supreme Person, Sri Patanjali informs us that He is the teacher even of the ancient authorities from before.  He is ever existing and is ever the supreme master and supreme teacher of everyone.


Paul’s Notation:  

How then will the average yogi find this person?  Where is the map to his door?  How can a man practically speaking know or come to be aware of this particular God and what is the medium through which He can be expereiced, perceived or known?



Verse 27

tasya vacakah pranavah  tasya – of Ahim; vacakah- what is denoted or named; pranavah – the sacred syllable AUM (Om)


Of Him, the sacred syllable Aum (Om) is the designation.



     Om is the standard designation given to the Supreme Being by the Vedic sages of who went beyond this world before.  In the Bhagavad-gita, Sri Krishna identified Himself with this Aum (Om).


Paul’s Notation:  

So here he gives further clues as to the questions which arose in the previous verse.  Who could read these verses and not feel the presence of the greatness of the author and feel some kind of reverence and awe in just listening to the potency of his language.



Verse 28

tajjapah tadarthabhavanam

taj = tat - that sound = japah – murmering; tadarthabhabanam= tat =that +artha – value + bhavanam – with deep feelings


That sound is repeated, murmured constantly for realizing it’s meaning.



    A whimsical repitition of Aum (Om) will not serve the purpose.  The japa murmuring has to be done with deep feeling and intense concentration.  This leads into a deeper state of mind and to a quietude in which reverberates the sounds which come in from the super-physical world.  These sounds are the actual Aum (Om) and the yogi recognizes them after purifying his mento-emotional energy through pranayama and a lack of interest in the material world.


     A key factor is to disengage the gears of memory from the engine of the buddhi organ.  For so long as the memory runs on automatically, the yogi cannot be free from the chatter and picturizations  of the mind.  Thus he will not experience what comes from the super-physical and spiritual world.


Paul’s Notation:

Now he is speaking about a technique , namely this specific sound repeated/ murmured constantly …. For realizing it’s meaning.    



Verse 29

tatah pratyakcetana adhigamah api antaraya abhavah ca

tatah – thence   what is resulting; pratyak – backwards, inwards, in the opposite direction; cetana - sense consciousness; adhigamah – accomplishment; api –also; antarya – obstacle; abhavah – not existing; ca – and 


As a result there is inwardness of the sense consciousness and the disappearance of obstacles to progress.



     The result of chanting Omkara is given here as the attainment of the stage of pratyak (pratyahara), which is the internalization of the sense consciousness.  Usually this consciousness courses outward into the subtle and gross material world.  If Aum (Om) is repeated properly, one may develop introspection so that the same outward going sense energy turns back and begins to flow inwards.


     This causes conservation of psychological energy in the realms of thinking and feeling.  Thus the mento-emotional energy is restrained and conserved.  The yogi then gets a boost of pranic charge and experiences super-physical and spiritual realities.  This leads into dharana practice which is the sixth stage of yoga.


     As soon as one has mastered the internalization of the sense consciousness, many obstacles goes away, because one is lifted out of the dimension where such hindrances exist.  One transcends them.  The obstacles remain for others who have not advanced to that stage.



Verse 30

vyadhi styana samsaya pramada alasya avirati bhrantidarsana alabdhabhumikatva anavasthitatvani cittaviksepah te antarayah 

vyadhi – disease; styana – idleness; samsaya – doubt; pramada – inattentiveness; alasya – lack of energy; avirati – proness to sensuality; bhrantidarsana- mistaken views; alabdhabhumikatva -  not being able to maintain the progress made, not holding the ground (bhumi); anavasthitatvani – unsteadiness in the progression; cittaviksepah-  scattered mental and emotional energy; te – these; antaryah – obstacles


These obstacles are disease, idleness, doubt, inattentiveness, lack of energy and prone to sensuality, mistaken views, not being able to maintain the progress attained, unsteadiness in progression, scattered mental and emotional energy.



     Pratyahar practice which was described in the previous verse as being the main benefit from the murmuring of the Aum (Om) sound, is the turning point in the practice of a yogi.  If he masters that, there is really no turning back form him.   He will thereafter consolidate the progress.   Those who do not master pratyahar are subjected to numerous types of discouragement in yoga practice.  It is mainly because they did not master pranayama.  


     Under a false notion (bhrantidarsana), a neophyte gets an idea that he does not have to do any painstaking strenuous pranayama.  Thus he neglects a very important stage and is unable to change out the lower pranic energies in his subtle body.


Let me go over the obstacles one by one.


Disease (vyadhi)

     Disease is an obstacle to any yogi who acquires a gross body for the practice of yoga.  That body is our means of deliverance but if it is unhealthy, our minds and emotions will be disturbed in such a way as to cause us to desist from practice for sometime.  However a yogi should be realistic.  He is a limited being and he should not expect that his human form will always be free from disease.


      Some yogis, the advanced ones, maintain the practice even with disease.  This is to maintain the habit of the practice.  If one passes on from a diseased body and does not attain liberation, one will carry to the next human body the tendency to do yoga, which will be an asset in the new form.  Thus even if there is disease, a yogin should maintain

whatever portion of the practice he can do with the diseased form.


     One who has passed the seventh stage of yoga, that of dhyana effortless linkage of the attention to the higher concentration forces, is not put down by disease, but others definitely are.  Since one’s liberation is reliant on the status of one’s human body, one should do as much as possible to protect the body from disease.


Laziness / Idleness (styana)

       By constitution some persons do not have much determination. Their minds are fickle.  Such persons come to a yoga class for quick liberation.  Without understanding the requirement, they adopt the view that everyone can attain liberation in a jiffy or that a great yogin should be able to liberate everybody.


      The truth is that everyone cannot become liberated because by constitution some spirits do not have the  gomsha or inner drive to work for liberation.


     However a person who is by nature idle-minded might become liberated if his atmas or spirit is connected existentially to a great yogin.  By proximity to that great yogin, an idle-minded person might become liberated.  If a boat has got  too small of an engine,  then a tug which is a small boat with an overly-powerful engine can pull it along.  Similarly if another boat has a large enough engine which is defectively operating, it too can be pulled by a powerful tug.  It is a question of how long such a tug would pull the  powerless boat.  How long can a great yogi drag an idle-minded disciple of his.


     Idle mindedness can be overcome after long long practice, especially in pranayama and pratyahar, which are breath infusion and sensual restraints.  It is the outpouring of the sensual energies which cause a person to have a scattered mind.  This is why in the last sutra, Sri Patanjali indicated that if one chants the Omkara one could develop internalization.


Doubt  (samsaya)

     Doubt is removed by personal experience of spiritual truths.  Such experience comes after persistent practice.  Some student yogis are doubtful by instinct.  Even after having a few experiences, they remain troubled about the aim of yoga.  This stresses their minds and causes them to go slower in the progressions.


     A doubtful student will leave the path unless he or she is sustained in the practice by the association of a great yogin.


Inattentiveness( pramada)

     This is related to idleness, and is based on innate tendencies having to do with the scattering energies of the mind.  It is by mastery of pratyahar, the fifth stage of yoga, that this is achieved.  Inattentiveness is a state of mind which is driven by certain types of pranic forces which latch on to a particular living entity.  If he or she can change that pranic energy, taking in a more concentrated type, the inattentiveness goes away.


Lack of energy (alasya)

     In yoga one has to endeavor.  If there is a lack of energy, there will be no progress.


Proness to sensuality (avirati)

     This is also driven by the type of pranic energy in the mind.  Hence the need for pranayama and pratyahar practice to change the nature of the mind by changing the energy content.  The mental and emotional energy which we use has certain inherent capabilities.  


Mistaken views  (bhrantidarsana)

     Mistaken views come about according to the status of the buddhi organ which is used for analyzing.  That organ, regardless of its accurate or inaccurate deductions, is prone to receiving information from the senses. The senses in turn accept information in a prejudiced way, depending on the type of sensual energy used and on the basis which come up in the memory circuits.


     Purification of the buddhi brings about a dismissal of the mistaken views and that process is called buddhi yoga which is described in detail in chapter two and three of the Bhagavad-gita.


     One must purify the life force, the kundalini chakra, as well as all parts of the subtle body.  One must be celibate by practicing the yoga austerities.  Then the buddhi organ assumes a brighter glow and becomes capable to avoiding mistaken views.  The sensual energies are purified by pranayama and pratyahar practice. 


Not being able to maintain the progress made (alabdhabhumikatva)

     A person who takes to yoga and who by association with a great yogi, makes some progress, may not be able to maintain the advancement.   He or she might digress into a lower stage after some time.  This is due to the assertion of the lower nature.  It is due also to the distractions which come by virtue of the  power of the memory.  Instead of shedding off previous negative tendencies, the person is motivated by these, because of the probing and prompting of the memory circuits.  Thus the person becomes distracted from yoga and is driven to live a life which is similar to the one used by non-yogis.  Thus whatever progress is made is lost for the time being, when the lower tendencies take over the psyche and force it to their way of operation.


Unsteadiness in progress (anavasthitatvani)

      Unsteadiness in progression occurs because of the force of cultural activities.  These acts force their way into the life of an aspiring yogi and cause him to abandon yoga altogether or to see it as being a side feature.  When the cultural activities assert themselves as the priority, the yogi is unable to maintain a consistent practice.  His progression becomes sporadic and he loses faith in yoga, thinking that it will not give him the results intended.  


     A yogi in such a position needs to consult with a person who understandings karma yoga as it is taught in the Bhagavad-gita to Arjuna.  If one works under the direction of the Universal Form in helping with His duties in karma yoga, then one can ultimately be free from cultural acts, even from those which are enforced in this world by the Universal form of Sri Krishna.  But one must be directed by a great yogi or alternately by Lord Shiva, Lord Balarama, or Lord Krishna.


Scattered mental and emotional energy (cittaviksepah)

      There is only one way to get rid of the scattered mental and emotional energy.  That is the method of pranayama and pratyahar practice.  Pratyahar practice causes one not to need much association from others because by it one conserves the sensual powers and enriches oneself being less and less dependent on whimsical social associations.  Pranayama practice makes the yogin see that is is possible to change out the lower pranic energies in the psyche for higher ones which accelerate yoga.





Verse 31

duhkha daurmanasya angamejayatva svasaprasvasah viksepa sahabhuvah 

duhka –distress; daurmanasya – of mental depression; angame jayatva – nervousness of the body; svasaprasvasah – labored breathing; viksepa – distraction; sahabhuva – occurring with the symptoms


Distress, depression, nervousness and labored breathing are the symptoms of a distracted state of mind.



     Physical distress, mental distress, emotional distress causing nervousness of the body and labored breathing, occur as symptoms of a distracted mind.  These manifest in old age as a matter of course.  To decrease these occurances consistent asana and pranayama practice is required.


     These distractions and the obstacles mentioned  in the previous verse must be avoided by a yogin.  He must recognize how these come about and stay away from their causes.  He must know how to sidestep the human association which bring on or aggravate these.



Verse 32

tatpratisedhartham ekatattva abhyasah 

tat – that; pratidedha – removal; artham – for the sake of; eka – one; tattva- standard method in pursuit of reality (tattva); abhyasah – practice


For the removal of the obstacles, there should be the practice of a standard method used in the pursuit of the reality.



     One has no alternative but to practise, using methods which yogis in the past were successful in applying.  Each yogin has to use a method that applies to his state of development.  In the Bhagavad-gita also there is a similar statement about the practice:  

sri bhagavan uvaca

asamsayam mahabaho mano durnigraham calam

abhyasena tu kaunteya vairagyena ca grhyate


The Blessed Lord said; Undoubtedly, O powerful man, the mind is difficult to control. It is unsteady. By practice, however, O son of Kunti, by indifference to its responses, also, it is restrained. (Gita 6.35)


Paul’s Notation:   

Something that might be interesting to note here is that thus far Sri Patanjili has not yet talked about sin or anything resembling it.  He is not preaching to us or laying down moral dogma that humanity is to follow under penality of hell, or karmas in future lives.  Thus far his approach is strictly from a clinical view.  





Verse 33

maitri karuna mudita upeksanam sukha duhkha punya apunya visayanam bhavanatah cittaprasadanam 

maitri – friendliness; karuna – compassion; mudita- joyfulness, cheerfulness; upeksanam – indifference, neutrality, non- responsiveness; sukha – happiness; duhkha – distress; punya – virtue; apunya- vice; visayanam – relating to attractive objects; bhavantah – abstract meditation; citta-mento-emotional energy; prasadanam - serenity


The abstract meditation resulting from the serenity of the mento-emotional energy comes about by friendliness, compassion, cheerfulness and non-responsivness to happiness, distress, virtue and vice.



     This reverts back to the second verse where the skill of yoga is defined:

yogah cittavrtti nirodhah

“The skill of yoga demonstrated by the conscious non-operation of the vibrational modes of the mento-emotional energy.” (Yoga Sutra 1:2)


     The turbulence in the mental and emotional energies cause the living entity to be unsettled in the material creation and to strive after that which is temporary.  This causes stress and ends in frustration, because the temporary manifested energy always changes either in a favorable or unfavorable way.


     For stability of that energy, one has to practise yoga for a long time, but most persons are disinclined to the austerities and do not regard yoga as the priority.  This is because they are given over to the sensual energies and the promises transmitted to them by such powers, promises that are not to be fulfilled in fact.


     By cultivating friendliness, by administering compassion, by maintaining a cheerful demeanor and by an overall attitude of neutrality in non- responsivness to the movements of the lower energies, the yogin develops serenity of nature, which allows him to practice the abstract meditation through which he is allowed to break away from here and enter into the superphysical and spiritual dimensions.


Paul’s Notation:  

Let us read on and hope that some Method for this “abstract “ meditation is given.



Verse 34

pracchardana vidharanabhyam va pranasya

prachardana – exhalation; vidharanabhyam – by inhalation; va – or; pranasya –of the vital energy


Or by regulating the exhalation and inhalationi of the vital energy




     This is the practice of pranayama, the fourth statge of yoga practice.  This must be learned from a knowlegable yogin who practices and knows the benefits of the methods he teaches.  It may be discovered by a few fortunate students of yoga.


Paul’s Notation:  

Again, we hope the author will give some method or technique for this practice.  



Verse 35

visayavati va pravrttih utpanna manasah sthiti nibandhani

visayavati – like normal sensuality, something different but similar to a normal object; va – or; pravrttih – the operation; utpanna – produced, brought about; manasah – of the mind; sthiti- steadiness; nibandhani – bond, fusion


Or fusion and steadiness of the mind is produced by the operation of the mento-emotional energy towards an object which is different to but similar to a normal thing.



     This refers to the superphysical and or spiritual perception which is developed in the psyche of a yogi, especially in his buddhi organ through the curbing of the imagination faculty.  Then the yogi sees objects which are not of the gross and subtle material energy but which are superphysical and spiritual.  Perceiving such objects brings steadiness of mind and fusion of the attention of the yogi into the higher level of reality, the chit akash.


     Visaya is a normal sense object of this world, something to which our normal senses are usually attracted to either for attaching itself or for repulsing itself from.  Vati means something that is similar, something like that.  Objects in the sky of consciousness are also objects but they do not cause the self to be degraded as the objects in this world do.


     The term pravritti means operation, for active function.  Even though the mastership of yoga is to the stop the conventional operation of the mental and emotional energies, still this means that they must be stopped on this side of existence.  Hence the functioning of that energy for perception of spiritual objects causes the fusion of the mental- emotional force to a higher reality.  


Paul’s Notation :   

Sri Patanjali is talking about the different means of quieting the mind.  I think it’s important to remember this as we go through the text. Note the word “OR” which is given in many of these sutras.. this means that the same result can be arrived at by different means; perhaps according to different termperments, and different backgrounds.  Modern psychology for example claims that people learn and experience the world in very different ways.  Some people learn audialy, while other predominantly learn visually or kinesthetically.  And each person’s language evolves around those Ways of experiencing their reality…i.e.  “I SEE what you mean, will be said by a visual person,

Or I HEAR what you are saying by an person who predominantly experiences the world through  the faculty of hearing.  I “FEEL” that what you are saying is…..will be a person who kinesthtecally experiences and learns…and so what happens when a feeling person talks to a visual person, or vise versa…and what happens when a teacher is predominantly kinesthetic and he is talking to a class who are a mixture of all of the above? 


     So Sri Patanjali is giving these different means of bringing the mind towards quietude.

Different temperments will take to different approaches…and some people will not make any sense out of some of these methods. 



Verse 36

visokah va jyotismati

                          visokah – sorrow-less; va – or; jyotismati – spiritually luminous


Or by sorrowless and spiritual luminous states



     The experience of various student yogis differ, but the similarity is that the experiences cause them to have faith in the practice of yoga, and it increases their drive for progress.  It is not stereo-typed.  One person might see beyond this physical world into the sky of consciousness.  Another might feel a sorrowless energy or experience sheer spiritual light.


     Any of these experiences which are valid alternatives to this subtle and gross material existence, will result in the stability of mind required to put a halt to the operations of the mental and emotional energy, thus leading to personal experiences of the transcendence, and to mastership of one’s interaction with this material world.



Verse 37

vitaraga visayam va cittam

vita – without; raga – craving; visayam -an object or person; va – or; cittam – mento-emotional energy


Or fixing the mento- emotional energy on  someone who is without craving.



     One may, by association with a great yogi who is free from craving develop stability to stop the razzy dazzy operations of the mental and emotional energies.  Such associations can definitely cause this. 


Verse 38

svapna nidra jnana alambanam va

svapna – dream; nidra – dreamless sleep; jnana – information; alambanam- taking recourse; va - or


Or by taking recouse to dream or dreamless sleep



     Some yogis gain steadiness of mental and emotional energy by keeping track of their dreams and by remaining objectively conscious in dreamless sleep.  Through these mystic observations they study the movements of consciousness and are able to discern reality and non-reality and to situate themselves in the state which is detached from the normal operations of the mental and emotional force.  For success in this course a yogi must distance himself from his memory, because its impressions aggravate the instability of the mind and motivate the emotional energies to create picture sensations for further cultural activity in the material world.


Paul’s Notation:

Here yet another method is suggested.  Really these are suggestioins…and things just stated in passing.  The word Or leaves it up to the reader to decide whether or not he wants to explore this particular avenue or not.  Either way Patanjali is not trying to tell us that there is only one way to accomplish this objective.  Sri Patanjali is not a fundementalist.  Modern scholars look at him and say he is a scientist and that what he is giving here is science. But modern science has become very much concerned with very accurate and specific methods of measuring these things, and most of what is being presenented here are things for which there are no instruments fine enough to measure and record the findings.  Each practitioner must divise his own methodology if he wants to chart and record his findings “as” science, or with some semblance of scientific principals.  



Verse 39

yathabhimata dhyanat va

yatha – as, according; abhimata – what is dearly desired; dhyanat – from effortless linkage of the mind to a higher concentration force; va – or


Or it can be achieved from the effortless linkage of the mind to a higher concentration force which was dearly desired.



     This gives the hint that through love and endearment, one may attain the cessation of the undesirable operations of the mental and emotional energy.  The process of bhakti or devotion is mentioned in  this verse under the term abhimata which means agreeable, beloved and endearing.


Paul’s Notation:

At some point in going through this text one has to  appreciate not only the work that Sri Patanjali laid out here, but  the depth it takes to translate the Sanskrit into English.  I do not have a grasp of the Sanskrit language, but from going through this patiently and with an open mind, my appreciation of what is taking place here grows by the day.  I hope that those who read this will gain this appreciation as well and come to realize how great a debt we have for those who go through the painstaking task of converting the Sanskrit to English without distorting it or trying to twist its meaning to something other than what is being said.  We are truly at  the mercy of those who do these translations and I think this is something that must be acknowledged and not take for granted.



Verse 40

paramanu paramamahattvantah asya vasikarah

paramanu = paprama – smallest  + atom; parama – greatest; mahatva – largeness, cosmic proportions; 

antah – ending, extending to; asya – of his, him; vasikarah – mastery of the psyche 


The mastery of his psyche results in control of his relationship to the smallest atom or to cosmic proportions.



     Some commentators explain that this means the yogi gains control over what is atomic  (anu) and what is cosmic (mahatva).  However on a close check of the Sanskrit term vasikarah, this does not tally with what Sri Patanjali indicated.  He means that the yogi is able to control not the atomic and cosmic but rather his relationship to the same.  By controlling the forces in his psyche, his psychological energies, he acquires a greater degree of control over his response to what is cosmic and atomic.  Those aspects remain the same in the universe he inhabits, but his response to them changes in such a way as to set him in a position of relative immunity to their negative or spiritually detrimental influences.  This occurs because of the yogin’s detachment, his lack of interest as described in text 12 and 15.


     While a human being is almost compelled to react in a preset way to a set of circumstances or to a type of energy, the yogin, because he has switched his energy intake to a higher concentration force, can side-step most influences and  remain in an unbiased status as conferred on him by his yoga practice.


Paul’s Notation:  

One, I suppose could assume that because in chapters that follow Sri Patanjali will discuss the mystic powers that become available to the yogi that this verse implies this, but Madhvi disagress with this presumption.  It is also interesting that the commentators Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti in their Yoga sutras of Patanjali on Concentration of Mind give this interpetation.  All that Patanjali does in the present sutra is that he is clarifying the notion that the mind has the ability to concentrate itself on an extremely small (anu) “object” like the atom, as on an extremely large (mahahat) “object”, like the universe.  The mind can conceive the infinitely small as well as the infinitely great and then concentrate itself on it.”



Verse 41

ksinavrtteh abhijatasya iva maneh grahitr grahana grahyesu tatstha tadanjanata samapattih 

ksina – great reduction; vrtteh – concerning the mento-emotional operations; abhijatasya – of what is produced all around or transparent; iva –like; maneh – of a gem; grahitr- perceiver; grahana – flow perception; grahyesu – in what is perceived; tatstha – basis foundation; tad = tat- that; anjanata – assuming the nature of or characterization of (anj- to smear with, to mix with); samapattih – linkage fusion.


In regards to the great reduction of the mento-emotional operations, there is fusion of the perceiver, the flow of perceptions and what is perceived, just like the absorption of a transparent jewel.



     This happens also in ordinary experiences, when a person becomes totally preoccupied as it were with gross objects or an endearing feeling.  Thus what is as special about a yogin who achieves this after much practice at greatly reducing the impulsive operations of his mento-emotional energy.


     There must be a difference in the accomplishment of the yoga.  For one thing, the ordinary person is driven impulsively.  He has not practiced to stop the automatic operations of his mental and emotional energies. He has no control over the fusion of his consciousness with various forces to which his mind and emotions are impulsively attracted. He does not have to purify in psyche which the yogi earned by higher yoga practice.  The yogin’s linkage with higher concentration forces is quite different to the ordinary man’s absorption with subtle and gross energy which is perceived by an impure psyche.


Paul’s Notation:

     It is in this particalar verse and it’s interpetation that I have great difficulties. In a sense it raises great concern for me and with all due respect, reverence and awe to both Sri Patanjali and Sri Madhvacharya I will voice these concerns.


First of all why MUST there be a difference between the spontaneous operations of an ordinary man and a yogi.  A yogi after all is really just an ordinary man who for one reason or the next has taken up some form of yoga practice and this in itself  does not make him more “spritual” or “holy” just because he does this. In fact many people take up yoga for reasons far less pure than many “ordinary “ people take up careers in accounting or education.  The problem for me is that in the second sutra the text states that when the mental-emotional operations are shut down, then the Perciever resides in his pure self.  Well surely that Pure self must be existing all the while, even at this very moment in everyone, in every germ…so why single out the yogi and make this distinction just because he is trying to reach that pure state with this particular method?  And why should he be regarded distinctly when in fact the pure self is already existing?  And why should be it be an either or game?  An ordinary man could stumble on a piece of gold as well as a priest?  The priest is still a man after all he just has different ambitions, and who knows what is actually motivating him to take up this process or some other processes?

In the psychological world EVERYONE is the star of their own theater. Everyone feels like the center of the universe and perhaps there is a good reason why this is so.  


       We are talking about yoga PRACTICE here, and so this means, doesn’t it, that the yogi is practicing something…as a musician would practice music, as an athelete would practice swimming, trying get proficicent trying to gain some self control, but there are millions of people PRACTICING and surely their effort in one sense sets them apart from those who do not practice anything, but all the same, they are still operating with essentially the same equipment dealing with the same internal and external forces.



Verse 42

tatra sabda artha jnana vikalpaih sankirna savitarka samapattih 

tatra – there, in that case; sabda – word; artha- meaning; jnana – knowledge concerning something; vikalpaih – with option, alternative, doubt , uncertainty; sankirna – blending together, mixed; savitarka – thoughtfulness, reasoning, deliberation; samapattih – fusion linkage


In that case, the deliberate linkage of the mento-emotional energy to a higher concentrating force occurs when a word, its meaning and the knowledge of the object alternate within the mind, blending as it were.



     There are various types of linkage between the yogin’s partially or fully purified attention and some other person or force.  It might be a person or force residing in his psyche or one that is exterior to it.  When that linkage occurs with the analytical organ being operative, then it is called deliberative linkage or vitarka samapattih.  Sri Patanjali defined each type of higher linkage to clarify the various levels of accomplishment of a yogi and to remove any vagueness regarding lower accomplishment and higher yoga.


Paul’s Notation:

Is this merely another way of saying that the person gains understanding of the thing he is observing?  Could it be, in all of this analysis that some of these processes are very simple acts that this same self does quite frequently, consciously or unconsciously, but the feat and by gymnastics of trying to describe them makes them sound far more complicated and obscure than they really are for this same perceiver  or observer, or whatever you wish to call him. Or is this really something very complicated that required real genius to divine. Of course we are at the same time talking about advanced yoga practice and not the impulsive mental and emotional conditioned responses that are ordinarily experienced in modern life, but all the same…the self is present through it all, and I think this needs to be acknowledged so that the whole process doesn’t become far too abstract to the sincere reader who is trying to understand this process.



Verse 43

smrtiparisuddhau svarupasunya iva arthamatranirbhasa nirvitarka 

smrti – memory; parisuddhau – on complete purification; svarupa- essential nature of something; sunya – devoid of; iva – as if; artha – meaning; matra – only; nirbhasa – shining; nirvitarka – fusion or linkage without deliberation of analysis.


Non-analytical linkage of his attention to a higher concentration force occurs when the memory is completely purified and the essential inquiring nature disappears as it were, such that the value of that higher force shines through.



     This is a description of what a yogi experiences when he engages in non-analytical linkage of his attention to a higher concentration force with a purified memory and when he find that the analytical urges of the buddhi organ cease functioning.  Then he discovers the value of the higher concentration force or person to which he is linked.


    Readers should not get frustrated because these are very complicated explanations given by Sri Patanjali.  After all, what he describes has to do with very subtle superphysical and spiritual phenomena.  This is not easy to understand.  It gives us an appreciation of the accomplishments of the great yogins.


    Shudda means purity but pari shudda means complete, all around purity.  When the memory is cleaned by a consistent and thorough practice which results in stopping it’s impulsive activations and silencing its influences and biases, then the yogi is able to disarm the buddhi organ.  This is the important clue in this verse.


    Because the buddhi carries the weapon of analysis, it is able to blackmail and intimidate the self into cooperating with the plan of the impulsive but blind life force and the sensible but shortsighted senses.  Thus when the yogin silences the weapon of analysis, he becomes freed from its harassments.


    At that time the senses become powerless to bother him, because they lose the protective support of their powerful friend, the analytical intellect organ (buddhi). Thus the yogin no longer has to fight with the memory to stop it from whimsically and impulsively showing him so many impressions on their visual and audial forms.  With such distractions reduced to nil, he progresses quickly and is able to move his attention into the realm of the chit akash, the sky of consciousness.


Paul’s Notation:  

I am wondering if this is a discription of the mechanics of what we call  intuition?



Verse 44

etayaiva savicara nirvicara ca suksmavisaya vyakhyata 

etaya – by this; eva – only; savicara – investigative linkage of one’s attention to a higher concetration force; nirvicara – non-investigative linkage; ca – and; suksma – subtle; visaya – object; vyakhyata – explained


By this, the investigatative linkage and non- investigative linkage of one’s attention to a higher concentration force consisting of subtler objects, was explained.



     There is a difference between an analytical linkage and an investigative one.  There is a slight difference.  It depends on the yogi’s interest in particular subtle phenomenea as well as on the influence of the higher concentration force to which he is linked.  At a higher stage, he regards the subject of interest without the bias of analytical or investigative approach.  This is called surrender to the higher concentration force, person or thing as well as to his relationship with it.



Verse 45

suksmavisayatvam ca alinga paryavasanam 

suksma – subtle; visayatvam – what is concerning the nature of gross objects; ca – and; alinga -  without characteristics; paryavasanam – termination


The insight into the subtle nature of gross objects, terminates when one becomes linked to the higher concentration force which has no characteristics.



     As far as matter is concerned, a yogin has to research into it by linking his attention to its subtle states.  Ultimately, he will reach a stage where he connects with the undifferentiated status of matter which is it’s ultimate stage.  At that point, his research into it terminates.  Yet he still has to discover the role played by the Supreme Lord 

(Ishvar) in activating and manifesting matter.


     Sri Patanjali has graciously informed all student-yogins that when they reach the featureless state of the subtle material energy, they have reached the end of their research into it.  But this must be discovered by each yogin during the linkage of his attention to higher concentration forces.


Paul’s Notation:  

In all of this subtle terrain the map and the navigator must pause at some point.



Verse 46

ta eva sabijah samadhih

ta- they; eva – only; sabijah – with motivation from the mento-emotional energy; samadhih- effortless continous linkage of the attention to a higher concentration force


The previous descriptions concern the effortless and continuous linkage of the attention to a higher concentration force, as motivated by the mento- emotional energy.



     After making so much progress in higher yoga, a yogin realizes that what he was engaged in, was being motivated by the same mental and emotional energy which he endeavored to transcend.  This is because he discovered that besides himself there was a force in his psyche which  derived fulfillments from the endeavors.  He traces and discovers that these were a psychic motivational force which derived a pleasure from his practice.


    At that stage the practice begins in earnest and the purpose of the material energy in the life of the yogi is revealed.  Bowing to the mental and emotional mundane energy in his psyche he moves on in appreciation.  The purpose for which the Supreme Being caused the limited self, His eternal partner, to come in contact with a mundane life force and an investigative organ called a buddhi, now become evident to the yogin.



Verse 47

nirvicara vaisaradye adhyatmaprasadah 

nivicara = non – investigative linkage of one’s attention to a higher concentration force; vaisaradye – on gaining competence; adhyatma – relationship between the supreme soul and the limited one; prasadah – clarity and serenity


On gaining competence in the non-investigative linkage of one’s attention to the higher concentration force, one experiences the clarity and serenity which results from the linkage of the supreme soul and the limited one.



     When the yogin passes beyond the realm of material nature, his attention links up with spiritual energy in total.  Then he may, if he continues to progress, gain the competence described in this verse.  That causes his limited spirit to link up with the Supreme personality.  From that connection a serenity of spirit as well as a clarity of the relation between him and that Supreme person develops.


Verse 48

rtambhara tatra prajna

rtambhara – reality – perceptive, truth discerning; tatra – there, at that time; prajna – insight


There with that competence, the yogin develops the reality-perceptive insight.



     The rtambhara buddhi is called by different terms elsewhere in the Vedic literatures like the Bhagavad-Gita.  It is termed as jnana-dipena and jnana chaksusa.  This means the lighted (dipena) insight (jnana) or the vision (chaksusa) of insight (jnana).  In yoga parlance it is sometimes called the cleansed brow chakra, or third eye.  However this comes after much practice, when the mental and emotional energy (citta) is silenced, when it stops vibrating in reference to the subtle and gross material energy and when it becomes stabilized and converts the imagination orb into exacting visual insight.


     Srila Yogeshwara of Gangotri, that great yogin, rated this rtambhara buddhi highly.  He recommended its development to all yogins.  Sri Patanjali clarified that until one reaches the stage of nivicara Samadhi, that of non-investigative linkage of one’s attention to a highter concentration force in the chit akash, one cannot develop this rtambhara buddhi.  Patanjali identified the stage at which a yogin develops this.



Verse 49

sruta anumana prajnabhyam anyavisaya visesarthatvat

sruta – what is heard; anumana – what is surmised or seasoned out; prajnabhyam- from the two methods of insight; anya – other; visaya – object; visesa – particular aspect; arthavat – because of an object


It is different from the two methods of insight which are based on what is heard and what is reasoned out, because that is limited to a particular aspect of an object.



     Direct perception with the reality-perceptive insight is different to conventional perception  which is based on what is heard or read of and what is surmised or reasoned out on the basis of lower sense perception.  This is because in lower sense perception, the mind can only deal with one aspect at a time.  It then presents this to the buddhi organ for analysis and comparison.  Then through prejudiced notions one forms opinions.  This is haphazard.



Verse 50

ajjah samskarah anyasamskara pratibandhi

taj= tat- that; jah- which is produced from; samskarah- the impressions; anya- other; samkara- impression; pratibandhi-  the preventer, that which effectively suppresses something else


That impression which is produced from the reality-perceptive insight, acts as the preventer of the other impressions.


     Sri Patanjali’s Sanskrit language and dissection of yoga practice is precise.  Let us say for example that a car shifts into second gear at 25 miles per hour.  The driver might never realize the fact, however, the engineer who designed the transmission or another observant person would know  of the 25 mile per hour speed shifting requirement.  Some persons who have mastered higher yoga to a degree are to an extent ignorant of the details of higher yoga practice.  Unfortunately some of these persons took up the task of translating and commenting on these sutras.  They gave opinions that are at variance with what Patanjali intended.


     Sri Patanjali composed a Sanskrit grammar which means that he was very knowledgable of the language.  To deal with his Sanskrit, one has to know Sanskrit grammar thoroughly.  Patanjali was very observant of his own yoga practice and had good schooling in it.  Besides he is a mahayogin from his previous births.  Thus to translate and comment on his sutras is a challenge for anyone.  In any case, he did use a great favor by showing up the stages of higher yoga, a process which to say the least, is vague even to many of the yogins who reached the higher practice. This is because of the subtlety of the experiences and the failure of yogins to observe the minute details as Sri Patanjali did.  By a careful study of the information, any yogi can get some idea of where he is located on the path.


     Sri Patanjali informed us, that the impression derived from the reality-perceptive insight acts as a preventer to the other impressions in the psyche which were formed by the lower buddhi organ and which bother a student yogi.


     This information is significant, because in higher yoga one wonders when and where, one will get rid of the impressions which arise repeatedly in the mind and jar one lose from the prescribed focus.  The answer is that until one develps the reality-perceptive insight as stipulated here, one will not able to completely suppress the distracting impressions.  One will have to tolerate them to a degree and use other partial controlling methods.  This clears misconceptions and gives the student yogi hope that a time will come when the bothersome memories will be suppressed.



Verse 51

tasyapi nirodhe sarvanirodhat nirbijah samadhih

tasya - of that (preventative impression); api- also; nirodhe – on the non operation; sarva – all; nirodhat – resulting from that non-operation; nirbijah – not motivated by the mento-emotional energy; samadhi – continuous effortless linkage of the attention to the higher concentration force


The continous effortless linkage of the attention to the higher concentration force which is not motivated by this mento-emotional energy, occurs when there is a non-operation, even of that preventative impression which caused the suppression of all other lower memories.



     When all the impressions cease to be activated, when they all seem to be finished for good, then the highest contemplation occurs. That is a contemplation which is not motivated from this end of existence.  It is controlled by and operated by the higher spiritual level of existence, from the other side of life, the chit akash.


     Traditionally this first chapter is called Samadhi pada, which means the chapter defining Samadhi. The Second chapter is usually called sadhana pada, which deals with the practice of yoga.  That is of special interest to the student yogis.  After describing the higher yoga, the so-called raja yoga, Sri Patanjali described the practice of yoga as it is.  Anyone who calls himself a yogi or aspires for that honor, should pay close attention to the second chapter.

















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